Types Of Headings In HTML

HTML Hedings

Headings in HTML are used to display Titles, Sub-Titles of Sub-Sub-Titles for your web page text. There are six types of headings in HTML. H1 is the largest heading and H6 is the smallest heading. <H1> is opening tag whereas </H1> is the closing tag for the largest heading. The text between <h1> and </h1> will be displayed as the main Title in your web page. Following are the six tags used for six types of headings in HTML.

  1. <H1> ... </H1>
  2. <H2> ... </H2>
  3. <H3> ... </H3>
  4. <H4> ... </H4>
  5. <H5> ... </H5>
  6. <H6> ... </H6>




The H1 heading is used for main titles. Actually H1 heading will show the text in largest font size. H2 headings is used for Sub-Titles. H2 displays text in smaller font size than H1, H3 displays text of font size smaller than H1 and H2, and so on. H1 is for largest heading in a text page and H6 is for smallest heading.  

Importance Of Headings in SEO

Headings are important not only, for specifying Titles and Sub titles in a web page, but they play an important role to enhance Search Engine Optimization of your web page in major Search engines like Google and Yahoo. Search engines use your headings, especially H1 and H2 headings, to index the structure and content of your web pages. Therefore, proper use of headings may improve your web page's search engine optimization.

Example HTML Code and Output

HTML Code for Six HeadingsOutput in Web browser
<h1>First Heading</h1>
<h2>Second Heading</h2>
<h3>Third Heading</h3>
<h4>Fourth Heading</h4>
<h5>Fifth Heading</h5>
<h6>Sixth Heading</h6>


First Heading

Second Heading

Third Heading

Fourth Heading

Fifth Heading
Sixth Heading


Computer Games For Toddlers

Toddlers have the capacity to learn quickly, especially if they are taught using images, colors and graphics. Hence, computer games for toddlers have created a niche market in today's world. Also, this is a fun way to learn and toddlers do not find the learning process boring or tedious.






There are several computer games in the market especially designed for toddlers. Some of the categories of games that are available are as follows:


Educational Games For Toddlers


Animal games: In this particular category, all the games are associated with animals. Games are usually centered around matching the name of the animal to a picture or guessing the sound the animal makes. The games are slow paced so that the toddler has sufficient time to grasp it.



Computer Games For Toddlers

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Alphabet games: Here the main aim of the games is to teach the letters to the toddler. Usually the toddler has to press the corresponding letter on the keyboard and when it done correctly, images of items starting with that letter come up on the screen. With the help of images, a toddler can learn the alphabet in a relaxed and fun way.

Roll-over games: These games are specifically designed to improve the hand-eye co-ordination. The games are designed in such a manner that the toddler has to move his or her eyes in all the directions and also move his or her hands in the same direction as the eyes. These games also help to improve the concentration ability of the child.

Shape matching games: Here, the toddler has to match the shape of the image displayed. It is a simple and fun way of teaching the various shapes to the toddler. In fact, several of these games are available for free on the Internet.

Painting games: This is a good way to teach the child the different colors. In addition, the toddler also learns to concentrate and mix and match various colors to come up with a completely different color altogether.


Computer Games For Toddlers

Cool Halloween Games For Kids Of All Ages

Fall is in the air and Halloween not far behind, now is the time to start thinking about the great Halloween games for the kids who will be knocking on your doors. Of course if you are throwing a Halloween party you will want to find not only great games, but also spooky decorations, and icky treats as well. A good selection of games, crafts, and activities will keep the party running smoothly even after the younger goblins have given up the ghosts.






A little bit of organization will go a long way towards plenty of games to keep the ghouls and zombies at bay long enough to bring out some smiles and avoid any uncomfortably quiet moments as adults scramble to find something else to entertain the kids. If you have a few backups in mind this can go a long way towards the oh so important skill of buying a little more time. Also be sure to provide prizes for your games. Even boring games will keep a child's attention a little longer if there is the hope of a prize when all is said and done. It is also vitally important that you choose games that are age appropriate for your party guests.


Educational Games For Toddlers


Older children might enjoy games such as ghoul and fright or other scarier Halloween themed games while younger kids might find them too frightening or complicated to consider. Toddlers tend to really love pumpkins so any game with a pumpkin as a theme will generally retain a toddler's rapt attention. Toddlers also tend to prefer short games with few rules. You can even use the same game with different themes and toddlers will tend to remain well entertained. Marshmallow bobbing, scavenger hunts and the Monster freeze dance are also great fun for your smaller partygoers.



Cool Halloween Games For Kids Of All Ages



Other great Halloween gaming ideas include games that encourage the use of imagination and creativity. Craft projects are generally a hit, as children love bringing something home with them, especially if it's something they made with their own hands. Be creative with your crafting projects and offer several to choose from. Some kids may choose to try them all!

Older kids often like the ooey gooey gross-out types of games. Be as creative as you can be with the contents of your pantry. Can you make intestines or cauliflower brains? Be creative and see what great things you can come up with. Also, if you have children of your own, let them help in the planning process, it will make them feel valued and special. You'll find your children to be a great asset to you since all children have really great imaginations! You might be surprised what their demented little minds can come up with. I know my kids constantly surprise me.

Whatever games you choose for your Halloween fun remember the goal is fun and you really need to be flexible or no one will be having much fun. Halloween only happens once a year so make this party one that will create happy memories for a lifetime!


Cool Halloween Games For Kids Of All Ages

Preschool Learning Activities-Emotional Development &amp; Fine Motor Skills Activities

Preschool learning activities are varied and just involve a little creativity. Emotional Development activities for kids as well as Fine Motor Skills Development are very important areas to develop in your child or preschooler.






Having your preschool child cut out various shapes and objects is a great way to help develop fine motor skills. Of course if you are going to allow your children or preschoolers to do this activity you need to ensure they are using the proper 'child safe' scissors when doing ANY cutting in any material.  


Educational Games For Toddlers


Here is a fun preschool learning activity that you can use with your preschool child to help develop them in these specific areas of growth. Keep a collection of old magazines, newspapers or flyers that are full of images of people with different expressions etc.



Preschool Learning Activities-Emotional Development & Fine Motor Skills Activities



Instruct the children to pick a magazine or newspaper etc. to look through and find images of people's faces showing different expressions.  They may find pictures of happy faces, sad faces, surprised faces, angry faces, scared faces and many more.    

Your preschool child can then 'cut out' all the faces they find using 'child safe' scissors of course, and they can discuss each different image with the parent or teacher and discuss what they see in the person's expression.  You could even just have children find and cut out a certain expression, or what 'they' see as a certain expression. For example, you could tell them to find any pictures of 'happy faces' and see what they come up with, you may be surprised what they find!  

It is good to keep these images and glue them to a piece of Bristol Board or construction paper, and then to laminate it. You can then cut them all out and save them in a box or envelope! This will make the images last for years so they may be used again and again in many different ways to teach children.  You could even use these different faces and expressions and have children 'GROUP' all similar expressions together in a pile.  

Another Great learning activity for children becoming familiar with spelling and simple reading or word recognition would be to have a few different images (4-6) out. You could then have the names of the expressions written on a piece of paper or a label (example) Happy, Sad, Angry etc. You could have the child(ren) match the image to the word. This is excellent for simple reading and recognition of every day words that express emotion.


Preschool Learning Activities-Emotional Development & Fine Motor Skills Activities

Computer Education For Kids

Computers have become a common and needed part of life in today's society, making computer education imperative for children. Young children will typically begin to show an interest in the home PC by their toddler years. While it is may be a good idea to begin introducing your toddler to the computer in very short sessions, most children can began to learn and understand a computer's functionality by preschool age.






Preschool age children can learn to turn the computer on by themselves and will quickly learn to operate the mouse. Simple games that teach and reinforce basic school readiness skills are great for this age. Computer education for preschool age children should be limited to short sessions of about 30 minutes a few times a week.


Educational Games For Toddlers


Many childcare facilities offer computer time as part of their weekly curriculum for preschoolers. Structured games and activities give young children an opportunity to explore the way a computer works. Games that require dragging objects across the screen are excellent for building mouse skills in beginner users. Chose age-appropriate software and websites that involve alphabet and color recognition, shapes, counting, or short stories that are read aloud. Activities that feature music are also enjoyable for a preschooler's computer time.



Computer Education For Kids

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Kindergartners are normally still exploring the basics of computer use and will probably do best with activities that reinforce simple skills. As children become more comfortable with the computer, more complex games and activities can be introduced. Computer education for kindergartners typically consists of short sessions of no more than an hour, playing games that correlate with their classroom learning material.

By first grade, children have usually gained a good understanding of how to use a mouse and they are learning to use keyboard letters to type. Games like Typing Instructor for Kids can help young children become fast and efficient computer users. Early elementary age children are ready to move beyond simple reinforcement and skill drill activities to the many different functions of a computer.

First through third graders should use the computer as a supplement for their classroom work. A student studying about stars and planets can use the internet to search for pictures and information about constellations. An assignment about Africa can include a search for videos of African animals. Allow your child to work on his own, but stay close by to prevent access to inappropriate content and to answer any questions.

Software programs that allow children to create, like an art or publishing suite designed specifically for kids, can boost creativity along with providing exposure to technology. Grade level skills can also be practiced and enhanced with math, reading, and spelling computer games. There are a number of kid-friendly websites that provide search engines, games, and interaction opportunities.

Computer education for children should also include writing and creative writing activities. First graders are beginning to familiarize themselves with the keyboard and can write short letters or emails. By second and third grade, children can use word processor programs or writing software designed for children to write and publish their own short stories and poems, as well as use email to write to relatives.


Computer Education For Kids

Board Games and Their Benefits for Families

Board Games have long been known to have educational benefits, hence the use of them in many classrooms around the world. But what are the main benefits and do they apply to playing in the home and family setting?






Let's look at a four of the main educational benefits of board games and how they can encouraged in family game time.


Educational Games For Toddlers


The basic skill required to play is co-operation. Even competitive games actually teach co-operation as well. This is because of the fact that board games generally require more interaction than video games and movie watching. This interaction is in the forms such as talking, taking turns and even waiting for others. There is quite different from a video game, where play just keep on going, no matter what as happened to your opponent, you never stop and wait for them!



Board Games and Their Benefits for Families

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As stated above, co-operation is the basic skill board gaming teaches and it is from the co-operative interaction of playing a board game that many of the other educational benefits of playing board games arise.

The talking or conversation that occurs during game play enhances communication and families would do well to encourage children to talk about their gameplay. To explain why they moved, to voice concerns at other's moves and even to point out possible cheating!

Taking turns, and the waiting involved in this process, while another player takes their turn teaches both patience and respect for others. It seems a minor thing, but learning to do something as simple as making time for someone else to play their move, teaches children to be compassionate for others. To realize that the world does not revolve around them and that other people often miss out if one person rush in and vice versa. It also teaches them that sometime in life you simply have to wait and it helps to combat the impression, given by the mass media, that constant activity is the norm.

Yes, it does these things on a small scale and it only involves small time frames, but that is how teaching works. That is how the educational benefits of board game playing are passed on to children. Teachers know that most people only concentrate fully in small chunks, often somewhere between 5 and 10 minutes and for some people even less. So effective teaching often takes place in short bursts. Having to wait and observe for a few minutes between turns and then, when it is your turn, having a short period of decision making is a great way of educating and learning in small but powerful bursts.

Board Games then have at least four main educational benefits that are easily transferrable to home and family gameplay. Those four being; Co-operation, Communication, Patience and Respect.


Board Games and Their Benefits for Families

What Should I Do To Get My Dream Body ?

Commonly cosmetic surgery that can be done are face lift is rhinoplasty, eye lifts, elevators and brown. Actually there are many cosmetic surgeries are performed not only around the face but also the entire body. You can eliminate cellulite around the thighs due to age and after childbirth with cosmetic surgery. You also can eliminate the fat in certain body parts with liposuction. Lipsuction can be done in various parts of the body, from face, neck, abdomen, thighs, and so on. The amount of fat that can be issued is determined by the size of the initial body of the patient. Some people have managed to lose weight but there body parts that are still fat. With liposuction, your body shape will be proportional and ideal. Liposuction beverly hills is a place where you can perform the operation safely with medical personnel who are competent.

In baverly hills, not only do liposuction, tummy tuck and breast augmentation can also be done in this place. A diet that usually you do will leave the skin that accumulate in the abdomen. This will hang the skin and stomach discomfort. Tummy tuck beverly hills can remove these skin marks. Your stomach will look tight and does not accumulate. This type of surgery is done to streamline, tighten, and smooth the surface of the stomach. The trick by removing excess fat and skin contained in the abdominal area. Tummy tuck is also performed to tighten the abdominal muscles. For the sake of time efficiency and save costs, many women do a tummy tuck along with caesar.

Augmentation surgery can increase and enlarge your breast so it looks proportional and beautiful. Can be done with the insertion of implants. In surgery enlarge breast (breast augmentation), the doctor will put a filled silicone implants or collagen. To minimize the breast (breast reduction), the doctor will reduce the amount of breast tissue, fat and excess skin. Breast augmentation beverly hills is the right choice for your cosmetic surgery. Cosmetic surgery is not necessarily about beauty and are always done in the face. Cosmetic surgery is to correct an imperfect shape. Injectable silicone for example, you can apply to the breasts and buttocks although now more commonly used implants or botox. Whatever option you should choose cosmetic surgery based on need rather than just trends. This will affect your psychologically. Before deciding to perform surgery, you should have the right to obtain references personnel skilled in the art security so that you fully awake.

Create Your First Web Page in HTML

Now we will create a simple web page to display some text like "Welcome to Web Page Development!" and with a title "My First Web Page".

1. Type HTML Code in Note Pad

Open Note pad and type the following HTML code.
<HTML>
<HEAD>
<TITLE>My First Web Page</TITLE>      
</HEAD>
<BODY>
Welcome To Web Page Development!
</BODY>
</HTML>












2. Save HTML Document with HTML extension

Save this file as "FIRST.HTML". Click on File menu, click on Save, Type "FIRST.HTML" in file name box, select Desktop as a location to save, click on Save Button.



3. View Your Web Page in Web Browser

You will see that the file will be saved with a blue "e" Internet Explorer icon. Double click on the file and view the resulting web page in internet explorer window. You can see the pictures given to learn web page creation easily:





Basic Structure of HTML Document

Basic Structure of HTML Document 

The basic structure of an HTML document is given below:
<HTML>
        <HEAD>
         
       </HEAD>


        
       <BODY>

        
      </BODY>

</HTML>
The above format shows that an HTML document starts
with <HTML> tag and ends with </HTML> tag. It is also clear
that an HTML document consists of two main sections:


  1.  Head Section

Head section is used to specify a title of the web
page, normally. There are some other uses of Head section too, like linking
external style sheets and Java script code, etc. Head section starts with the <HEAD>
tag
and ends with the </HEAD> tag. <TITLE> tag is used to
display a title of the web page on title bar of the web browser.


basic structure of html web page document

  1. Body Section

Body section contains all the text and tags. It is used to specify the actual
content of the web page. Body section starts with <BODY> tag and
ends with </BODY> tag.

How To Create a Web Page In HTML

If you want to create a web page using HTML - Hyper Text Markup Language, you will need the following two software:
  1. Text Editor: It is used to write HTML tags according to the requirements of the web page. Windows Notepad is a suitable candidate for this purpose. You have to save the HTML document with html or htm extension. For example, type the name of your web page document as "first.html".



  1. Web Browser: Web Browser is a software used to view web pages. Examples of a web browser are Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox and Google Chrome. Microsoft Windows users can view and test their web pages, in Internet Explorer. 



I will discuss the Basic Structure of an HTML Document, in my next post.

Introduction To HTML

HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language. Hypertext refers to the text with Links. These links may point to sections of the same web page or any other web page within or outside the website.

HTML Definition

HTML is a language used to create and format web pages. HTML is used to define the structure and format of a web page. HTML will place and format the contents like text, pictures, audio or video data in your web pages. Moreover,you can use Links to connect the related web pages in the form of a website.


 Who Invented HTML?

HTML was developed by Tim Berners Lee in 1989.

TAGS and Elements

HTML uses commands called TAGS to create and format different elements
and contents of a web page. HTML tags are enclosed within angle brackets <>. For example <b> tag is used to format some text as bold text.
Normally, tags work in pairs as shown in the example below.

<b> This is bold text. </b>
The output of the above HTML command or tag will be as show next in blue:
This is bold text.

The <b> tag is called Opening Tag or start tag, whereas </b>
tag is called Closing Tag or end tag. most of the tags use both opening
and closing tags. A few tags like <br> tag (used for line break)
and <hr> tag (used for horizontal rule, that is, a horizontal line)
is used as single tags. They do not need closing tags. Such tags are also called
Empty Tags.
Every HTML Tag is related to some HTML element. For example, <TABLE>
tag
is used to create a table HTML element. Each HTML documents consists of
HTML elements.

Attributes

An attribute is an additional information to implement a tag. It gives some
extra information to enhance the format of the element related to that tag. For
example, <TABLE> tag is used to create a table in a web page. If we use a
<TABLE> tag without a BORDER attribute, table element will have no
border. If we use BORDER="1" in opening <TABLE> tag,
table will be created with a border.  BORDER is the attribute to
specify border width for a table and 1 is the value assigned to BORDER
attribute, as shown below:


<TABLE BORDER="1">          
                                           
.

.

.

</TABLE>                                  

Note: Attribute is used in Opening Tag always like BORDER="1".
Note: No attribute in Closing Tag.

Grief &amp; Loss - Children Losing Parents

According to Weenolsen (1988) loss can be characterized as anything that destroys some aspect of life or self. According to Worden (2002) grief can be characterized as the experience of someone who has lost an important relationship or even an attachment to another person. These concepts can be directly related to the loss of a parent. Losing a parent can be extraordinarily difficult due to the loss of support and characteristics which identify the position and role of a parent as being very special (Despelder & Strickland, 2005). The grieving processes can mean different changes for those within different roles. Older adults who lose their parents do not process or grieve as a child who has lost their parent. I feel that both of these specific roles and experiences are of greatest importance. Issues of culture also maintain consistent changes across societies in how one works through or expresses the loss of their loved ones. Support for children and adults is a very important part of the grieving process and should be connected to characteristics of who children and adults are within their roles and how they respond to such loss.






Due to modern technology only about 4 % of children experience the loss of a parent before the age of 18 yrs (Archer, 1999). In comparison, in the late 1700's to early 1800's many children were without parents, making life much more difficult for children (Fox & Quitt, 1980). One cannot discuss the loss of a parent to a child without discussing segments of attachment and other developmental theory. Attachment according to Davies (2004) is a special emotional relationship between two people. According to Archer (1999), Bowlby indicated that children are able to grieve and mourn when attachment processes become solidified around the age of six months to one year of age (Archer, 1999; Worden, 2002).


Educational Games For Toddlers


According to Weenolsen (1988) reactions related to grief and mourning begin within the early stages of infancy and learning when the child begins to understand their control over the environment, slowly gaining differentiation and losing their dependency. The mourning of this loss in dependency through the child's ability to gain control over their environment does manifest crying and seeking out behaviors that train the child to respond in this manner to gain access to their care giver (Weenolson, 1988). This instinctive response will be further utilized during future separations and loss (Weenolsen, 1988). Rando (1988) also claims that infants mourn when their nurturance is withdrawn and the mother (primarily) must assist in re-establishing the nurturing connection, thus reducing separation. These theoretical positions seem to be consistent with Attachment Theory in that it is the separation that initiates reactions. Furthermore, one could not understand or comprehend separation if one did not realize their own ability in controlling environmental circumstances in order to meet ones needs. It seems apparent that regarding reaction or understanding the meaning of death by children one would require sufficient cognitive ability.



Grief & Loss - Children Losing Parents

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game or ice-breaker, for literacy development, speaking and listening skills, creative inspiration, a mental workout or problem solving. Anyone can become a great storyteller and there are no wrong answers. Simply roll the cubes and let the pictures spark your imagination.

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The loss of a parent and the response is also due to what Bowlby characterizes as the loss of the child's "safe haven" or "secure base" to explore the world (Davies, 2004). One could hypothesize that this disruption of security would effect a child's exploration during toddler development, and at times hinder needed environmental interactions. According to Archer (1999) reactions by children during the mourning process due to the loss of a parent include; pining, preoccupation, yearning, seeking or calling. According to Littlewood (1992), Bowlby clarified that this reaction to loss as instinctive; and the seeking of the lost object (the parent) although fruitless, it is performed anyway. Although many reactions due to many types of circumstances are chosen by children as a response to emotional distress; these responses are considered specific to the loss of a parent (Archer, 1999). Furthermore, many of the emotional disturbances can bring with them depressive and anxious symptomatology; as well as sleep disturbances (Archer, 1999).

Children age 2 to 5 yrs. of age seem to ask many questions regarding the parental loss (Rando, 1988) They may display regressive behaviors, obsession over questions and circumstances, and may display anxiety and anger toward the deceased (Rando, 1988). There may also lay feelings of guilt and responsibility for the loss of the parental figure (Despelder & Strickland, 2005). Some of these reactions were clearly represented in my four year old son Jonathan who lost his grandmother this past year; he seemed to obsess over the funeral and what he had witnessed.

Ages 8 to 12 yrs. may feel helpless and experience reawakened feelings of childlessness (Rando, 1988). Children at this age may seek to repress such feelings, putting them at risk for complicated grief reactions (Rando, 1988). This would be consistent with Eric Erickson's stages of psycho-social development in regards to the stage of "industry vs. inferiority." According to Longress (2000) and Anderson, Carter & Lowe (1999) there is a push for the child to become "industrious" and confident during this stage of development. It seems clear that admitting ones childish and helpless feelings would be difficult during this period.

According to Worden (2002) when a death of a parent occurs in childhood or adolescents the child may not mourn effectively and this may create problems with depression and inabilities to maintain close relationships with others (p.159). According to Rando (1988) depression, denial and anger are feelings that seek to counter act the helplessness, dependency and powerlessness that adolescents are feeling. This response seems consistent when examining Erickson's psycho-social stages (Berger, 2001; Longress, 2000; Anderson et. al., 1999). During adolescents there is a pursuit to find ones "identity", and the parent is a role modeling figure who can assist with guiding and encouraging this process (Berger, 2001; Longress, 2000; Anderson et. al., 1999). It is understandable how an adolescent may feel powerless, helpless, dependent, and even angry due to the death of their parental figure.

In regards to meaning, Fiorini & Mullen ( Article ) clarify that it is very important to characterize the meanings of grief and loss through a developmental lens. According to Worden (2002), Murry Bowen clarified that one must understand the role and position of the dying parent within the family system, and the level of adaptive abilities of family members during and after the loss of a parent. I feel, as a social worker it is important with this information to better understand what this systemic loss means to the developing child within the family system. To many children the loss of a parent means a loss of stability, security, nurturing, and affection (Despelder & Strickland, 2005). According to Worden (2002) there are needed cognitive processes and concepts that must be developed before grief can be fully understood by children. The factors are as follows;

1. Understanding time; and what forever means

2. Transformation process

3. Irreversibility concept

4. Causation

5. Concrete Operations

According to Worden (2002)

Figure 1.1

According to Archer (2002) children before the age of 5yrs. believe that death is reversible. Many young children up to this point maintain a figurative representation within their minds of the lost parent and do not completely understand the permanency of the circumstance until cognitive maturation takes place (Despelder & Strickland, 2005; Rando, 1988). This would validate findings by Piaget in regards to object permanence and development of the cognitive processes of children (Berger, 2001). According to Archer (2002), Speece and Brent indicated that children from the age of 5 to 7yrs. of age begin to understand the irreversibility of death. Furthermore, according to Archer (2002) children less than 7 to 8 yrs. of age however, represented a lack of understanding regarding the word "death." This is consistent with Piaget according to Archer (2002) and Berger (2001), that in order to understand such a concept as death and irreversibility, ones conceptual thought must be sufficiently developed.

Up to the age of 9 yrs. of age however, most children attribute the death of their parent to outside forces, such as God and other (Carey, 1985). According to Rando (1988) although children 8 to 12 yrs. of age may have a more clear perception of what death is and understand the irreversibility of the process, they may also refuse to accept it.

Adolescent understanding and meaning regarding the death of a parent can be characterized as one of frightening shock and in-depth spiritual examinations. The adolescent is capable of these processes due to what Piaget termed the Formal Operating Stage of development (Longress, 2000; Berger, 2001). A questioning of spirituality and ones mortality can also be associated with Erickson's stages of development in regards to adolescents finding and understanding their social and human identities within this stage (Longress, 2000; Berger, 2001; Anderson et. al., 1999).

According to Littlewood (1992) it was indicated by studies from Anderson (1949), Bunch (1971) and Birtchnell (1975) that adults who lose parents react with tendencies to

have increases regarding:

1. Suicide ideation

2. Rates of suicide

3. Rates of clinical depression

According to Littlewood (1992)

Figure 1.2

Reactions and feelings related to the loss of a parent as an adult differ according to ones age (Rando, 1988). Adults in their twenties and thirties continue to view their parents as significant support structures, and losing them my feel as if one has been robbed. Feelings of childishness and regression is common and should not be repressed or ignored (Rando, 1988). One may find themselves utilizing their attachments to others such as children, friends, etc. in order to work through the grieving process (Rando, 1988). According to Rando (1988) it should be understood that the emotional nature of the relationship between the adult and parent will effect how the adult works through the grieving process. With this information one could hypothesize that the more an adult is undifferentiated in their identity in regards to the emotional parental relationship; the more difficulty they will have with separation (McGoldrick, 1998). This also would be consistent with Attachment Theory and the reactions associated with separation in regards to utilizing other constructed attachments in the absence of the parental primary (Davies, 2004). According to Littlewood (1992) a study by Sanders (1980) regarding grieving scales indicated that parents who lose their parents reacted high in two areas:

1. Increased death anxiety

2. Loss of control

According to Littlewood (1992)

Figure 1.3

According to Littlewood (1992) the increased anxiety is the result of the adult child feeling as if the are next in the generational line to experience death. The loss of control represents the loss of an important and unique relationship between the adult child and parent that sustained significant support features for the child (Littlewood, 1992; Despelder, 2005). From a gender prospective, it is believed according to Porter & Stone (1995) woman seem to indicate greater problems within the realm of relationships after a significant loss; men report greater work related problems through out the grieving process.

The meaning of losing our parents can different for many adults depending on the importance of the adult child / parent relationship (Rando, 1988). The parent has been the most significant and most influential force within the lives of their children; to lose this special relationship, is to lose a great deal in regards to support, the past and childhood connections, and an interpretation of circumstances within the world (Rando, 1988). These changes according to Rando (1988) & Despelder (2005) may place an adult in the position and process of no longer viewing themselves as a child; thus called the "developmental push." According to Despelder (2005), Rando (1988) & Littlewood (1992), the loss of the mother is usually more severe for adults than the loss of a father. This information is based on two primary factors:

1. The mother is usually the most nurturing

2. The mother is usually the last parent to experience death

Despelder (2005), Rando (1988) & Littlewood (1992) Figure 1.4

Losing a parent within adulthood also means "not having a home" to go back to which can leave a person feeling alone and frightened (Rando, 1988).

It seems clear that the death of a parent and its meaning can be commonly stated as a process that will force the adult child to redefine themselves, their roles, and expectations for their lives and the lives of their family of procreation.

According to Irish, Lundquist and Nelsen (1993) how cultures react and define meaning of death and loss of a parent varies. When examining the behaviors and perceptional meanings of death in various societies of the world, differences are evident between collectivistic / naturalistic cultures and individualistic / modernized cultures (Kalish, 1977). One primary difference that can be identified is the blame and reasons for ones death across cultures. Within modern societies death can be attributed to internal body failures due to poor nutrition and health maintenance (Kalish, 1977). Within our modernized society we may blame the person or parent for creating internal processes that led to their own deaths; like smoking, poor eating habits, etc. (Kalish, 1977). Within other cultures, especially isolated societies external agents would be to blame for the death of a parent, such as evil spirits or magic (Kalish, 1977).

Other grief differences across cultures include examples of muted grief, excessive grief, somatization, and excessive grief (Irish et. al., 1993). According to Irish et. al., (1993) in Bali if one does not remain emotionally calm and mute their grief process after the death of a parent or any loved one, sorcery and magic may place a person vulnerable to harm. Irish et. al., (1993) indicates Wikan's (1988) investigation of Egyptian culture expressed excessive grief through constant suffering and bereavement over an extended period of time. According to Oltjenbruns (1998) a study comparing scores upon the Grief Experience Inventory between Mexican students and Anglo students expressed that Mexican student's results expressed much higher somatization scores, thus indicating that Mexican culture seems to express greater amounts of somatization due to loss. Violent grief and rage seem to be expressed across most cultures; the initiation of this rage or violence seems to be connected to external circumstances; such as other cultures or other people who caused the death of a loved one (Irish et. al., 1993; Kalish, 1977; Archer, 1999).

According to Rando (1977) if children do not resolve their grief; complications can develop, such as; psychosomatic illness, psychological disturbances, adjustment disorders and behavior issues (p. 1999). One strategy according to Rando (1977) is for a therapist to facilitate the withdrawal of attachment from the deceased and make attempts to redirect the emotional energies in another primary figure in the child's life. This process of course would include identifying primary support structures that assist in sustaining the child's emotional, psychological, and social well being (Littlewood, 1992). Support structures could be identified as either formal or informal processes (Littlewood, 1992). It seems to be important to utilize professional support to assist a child as well as family before, during and after the death of a significant loved one, such as a parent (Littlewood, 1992). During these processes it would also be useful according to Littlewood (1992) to utilize informal supports; such as family members and others to assist with reducing psychological and emotional distress within the child or adults. It would seem that a therapist would be obligated to assess the roles, expectations and culture of the family and children before initiating any informal or formal interventions.

According to Rando (1977) children may at times act as if they are playing death games or acting out the funeral activities; however this is their way of coping and taking a break from their grief. Because children also have difficulty expressing their feelings, thoughts, and memories of the lost parent, it is important that a therapist assist with facilitating emotional expression (Rando, 1977; Despelder, 2005). Ways of gaining a child's attention and assisting them with expressing this emotion is to utilize book readings by authors who have written stories that relate to childhood grief (Despelder, 2005). Other strategies a therapist could utilize is art therapy and support group interventions to express emotional and psychological processes (Despelder, 2005).

Processes and supports for adults who have lost their parents and others are important processes that will assist adults through the grieving process. When assisting adults in coping with the loss of their parent it is important to understand that there are gender differences in coping with loss (Archer, 1999). According to Archer (1999) women tend to utilize greater emotional expression and emotional components to cope with the loss of a parent. Men it is believed, utilize problem solving strategies throughout their grieving process (Archer, 1999). According to Gallagher, Lovett, Hanley-Dunn, & Thompson (1989) woman seem to utilize cognitive process in order to work through the grieving process, where as men were indicated as utilizing "keeping busy" types of activities. One could hypothesize that a therapist would have to develop therapeutic interventions that would utilize these innate way's of coping according to one's layered identity, such as with gender. With this knowledge, Worden (2002) clarifies that a counselor should primarily seek goals that facilitate acknowledging the reality of the loss, to help the person with expressed and latent affect, to assist with problems related to readjustment and to assist the person with remembering the deceased while feeling good about moving on within their own lives (p. 52).

In concluding, one must understand that with the loss of a parent, the roles and expectations of those left behind will have dramatic effect upon them and the ways in which a social workers must intervene. It becomes apparent that through out the grieving process for children or adults primary considerations must be applied. Gaining better understandings of child and adult reactions and meanings of parental loss, examining the information through a cultural and gender perspective and utilizing coping and support processes to assist the bereaved is of great importance.

________________________________________________________

References

Anderson, R. E. Carter, I., & Lowe, G.R., (1999). Human Behavior in the Social

Environment; A Social Systems Approach. 5th ed. New York: Aldine De Gruyter Inc.

Archer, J. (1999). The Nature of Grief; The Evolution and Psychology of Reactions to

Loss. New York: Routledge.

Berger (2001). The Developing Person Through the Life Span. New York,: Worth

Publishers.

Carey, S. (1985). Conceptual Change in Childhood. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Davies, D. (2004). Child Development; A Practitioners Guide. 2nd Edition. New York:

Guilford Press.

Despelder, L. A. & Strickland, A. L. (2005) The Last Dance; Encountering Death and Dying. 7th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Fox, V. C., & Quitt, M. H. (1980). Loving, Parenting, and Dying: the Family Circle in

England and America, Past and Present. New York: Psychohistory Press.

Gallagher, D., Lovett, S., Hanley-Dunn, P. and Thompson, L.W. (1989). Use of

Select coping strategies during late-life spousal bereavement. In D.A. Lund (ed.),

Older Bereaved Spouses: Research with Practical Implications (pp. 111- 121).

New York: Hemisphere.

Irish, D. P., Lundquist, K. F., & Nelsen, V. J. (1993). Ethnic Variations in Dying,

Death, and Grief; Diversity in Universality. Philadelphia: Taylor & Francis.

Kalish, R. A. (1977). Death and Dying; Views from Many Cultures. New York: Bay

wood Publishing Company.

Littlewood, J. (1992). Aspects of Grief; Bereavement in Adult Life. New York:

Routledge.

Longress, J. E. (2000). Human Behavior in the Social Environment. 3rd Edition. New

York: Peacock Inc.

McGoldrick, M. (1998). Re-Visioning Family Therapy; Race, Culture, and Gender in Clinical Practice, New York. NY: Guilford Press.

Oltjenbruns, K.A., (1998). Ethnicity and the Grief Response: Mexican American vs.

Anglo American College Students. Journal of Death Studies, 22 (2), 141-155.

Porter, L. S. & Stone, A. A. (1995). Are there really gender differences in coping? A

reconsideration of previous data and results from a daily study. Journal of Social

and Clinical Psychology, 14, 184-202.

Rando, T. A. (1988). Grieving; How to Go on Living When Someone You Love Dies.

Canada: Lexington Books.

Weenolsen, P. (1988). Transcendence of Loss over the Life Span. New York: Book

Crafters.

Worden, J. W. (2002). Grief Counseling and Grief Therapy. 3rd Edition. New York:

Springer Publishing Company.


Grief & Loss - Children Losing Parents

Teach Me Today Free Online Computer Training Courses

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Mesh Topology

Mesh Topology

In a mesh topology, every device on the network is physically connected to every other device on the network. Therefore, data can be sent on several possible paths from source computer to destination computer. Mesh topology is more reliable with better performance. It is mostly used in wide area networks where reliability is important.




Advantages of Mesh Network Topology

1. Since, there are many links to transfer data, Mesh topology gets rid of the traffic problem. Data may be transferred through different links.
2. If one link becomes unusable, it does not disturb the whole system. Other links can be used for communication.
3. Since each node has physical connection with other nodes, therefore, one node can transfer data to many nodes at the same time.

Disadvantages of Mesh Network Topology

1. It is very expensive due to implementation of multiple links for each node.
2. It is difficult to install and reconfigure.
3. Adding or removing a computer is difficult.

Read  More on Networking
and Networks
1 Explain
Advantages Of Networks
2 Types
Of Computer Networks
3 Differences
between LAN and WAN
4 Types
Of Network Topology
5 Bus
Topology :Advantages and Disadvantages
6 Advantages
and Disadvantages of Star Topology
7 Advantages
and Disadvantages of Ring Network Topology
8 Advantages
and Disadvantages of Tree Topology
9 Advantages
and Disadvantages of Mesh Topology

Advantages and Disadvantages of Tree Topology

Tree Topology

Actually, a Tree topology is the combination of two topologies: bus and star topology. A tree topology combines the characteristics of bus and star topologies. It consists of groups of computer connected as star topology. These groups are then connected to a central communication medium (bus cable).




Advantages of Tree Network Topology

1. Many software and hardware vendors support tree topology.
2. It provides point-to-point wiring for individual groups.

Disadvantages of Tree Network Topology

1. If the main backbone line breaks, the entire tree network goes down.
2. It is more difficult to configure and maintain.
3. If any hub fails, related segment will be removed from the network.

Read  More on Networking
and Networks

1 Explain
Advantages Of Networks
2 Types
Of Computer Networks
3 Differences
between LAN and WAN
4 Types
Of Network Topology
5 Bus
Topology :Advantages and Disadvantages
6 Advantages
and Disadvantages of Star Topology
7 Advantages
and Disadvantages of Ring Network Topology
8 Advantages
and Disadvantages of Tree Topology
9 Advantages
and Disadvantages of Mesh Topology

Advantages and Disadvantages of Ring Network Topology

Ring Topology

In Ring topology, each computer is connected to the next computer such that last computer is connected to the first. Every computer is connected to next computer in the ring. Each computer retransmits what it receives from the previous computer. Suppose, computer A needs to send data to computer D. Now the computer A sends data to computer B. As computer B is not the destination computer, so it will retransmit data to computer C. Finally, Computer C will transfer data to computer D, the destination computer. When a node sends a message, the message is processed by each computer in the ring. If a computer is not the destination node, it will pass the message to the next node, until the message arrives at its destination.



Advantages of Ring Network Topology

1. It is relatively less expensive than a star topology network.
2. In a Ring topology, every computer has an equal access to the network.
3. Performs better than a bus topology under heavy network load

Disadvantages of Ring Network Topology

1. Failure of one computer in the ring can affect the whole network.
2. It is difficult to find faults in a ring network topology.
3. Adding or removing computers will also affect the whole network since every computer is connected with previous and next computer.
4. Sending a message from one computer to another takes time according to the number of nodes between the two computers. Communication delay is directly proportional to number of nodes in the network.

Read  More on Networking
and Networks

1 Explain
Advantages Of Networks
2 Types
Of Computer Networks
3 Differences
between LAN and WAN
4 Types
Of Network Topology
5 Bus
Topology :Advantages and Disadvantages
6 Advantages
and Disadvantages of Star Topology
7 Advantages
and Disadvantages of Ring Network Topology
8 Advantages
and Disadvantages of Tree Topology
9 Advantages
and Disadvantages of Mesh Topology

Advantages and Disadvantages of Star Topology

Star Topology

Star Topology is the most popular and widely used network topology in local area networks. In star topology, all computers are connected with a central device known as HUB or Switch. Now-a-days Hubs are often replaced by Fast Network Switches. The sender computer sends data to the hub. The hub sends it to the destination computer. So, all data communication is managed through HUB or Switch.
Note: The major difference between a Networking Hub and Networking Switch is that HUB sends data to all computers, and the destination computer will accept it while other computers will not. On the other hand, Switch sends data only to the destination computer. Therefore, switch can reduce network traffic and hence provides fast transmission speed.




Advantages of Star Network Topology

1. Easy Installation and maintenance

It is easy to maintain network. That is why it is so popular.

2. Adding or removing computers

Adding or removing computers can be done without disturbing the network. We connect the new computer with the HUB by means of a networking cable. One end of the cable (RJ 45 connector) is inserted in computer’s Network Interface Card and the other end (RJ 45 connector) is plugged into the HUB, and that’s it.

3. Fault Diagnosis

In a star network topology, finding faults is easy. If a computer is no more connected with your network, you can check its cable and connectors or network settings in its Operating system.

4. Network Reliability

Single computer failure will not disturb whole network, since all other computers are connected with separate links ( wires ) to HUB. Definitely, they will work fine.

5. Better performance

Star topology can prevents the passing of data through an excessive number of nodes. By using a Switch, at most, 3 devices and 2 links are involved in any communication between any two devices.
6. Device Isolation
Each device is separately connected to HUB or Switch and is isolated. This is why each device works independently.

Disadvantages of Star Network Topology

1. In star network topology, data communication depends on HUB. If central hub fails, then whole network fails.
2. Since each computer will be connected with HUB by means of a separate wire, star network topology needs more cable to connect computers.
3. It is more expensive due to more wires.

Read  More on Networking
and Networks

1 Explain
Advantages Of Networks
2 Types
Of Computer Networks
3 Differences
between LAN and WAN
4 Types
Of Network Topology
5 Bus
Topology :Advantages and Disadvantages
6 Advantages
and Disadvantages of Star Topology
7 Advantages
and Disadvantages of Ring Network Topology
8 Advantages
and Disadvantages of Tree Topology
9 Advantages
and Disadvantages of Mesh Topology